XIX. Terminology

Abnormality – an adverse condition that is different from the normal condition. This would include activities that our not within Company policy and/or standards.

Accreditation Body – organization with authority, typically from the national government, to accredit bodies such as certification bodies/registrars for quality system verification, test laboratory accreditation, etc.

Accredited Laboratory – one that has been reviewed and approved by nationally-recognized accreditation body [e.g. American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) or Standards Council of Canada (SCC) for test laboratory accreditation to ISO/IEC Guide 25 or national equivalent.

Active Part – one currently being supplied to a customer for original equipment or service applications.  The part remains active until tooling scrap authorization is given by the appropriate customer activity.  For parts with no customer-owned tooling or situations where multiple parts are made from the same tool, written confirmation from the customer Purchasing activity is required to deactivate a part.

Activity – can refer to departments, areas, processes, functions, etc. in a company.

Aftermarket Parts – replacement parts not procured or released by OEM for service part applications which may or may not be produced to original equipment specifications.

Analysis of Motion/Ergonomics – evaluation of the design of a product or process to assure compatibility with the capabilities of human beings. Analysis of motion refers to capabilities of people with respect to tasks (e.g. lifting, twisting, reaching) to prevent or relieve problems of strain, stress, excessive fatigue, etc. Factors involved include anatomical dimensions of the worker, placement of products to be worked upon, placement of buttons/switches, physical loads imposed on the worker, and environmental effects such as noise, vibration, lighting, and space.

Approved Material – materials governed either by industry standard specifications (e.g. SAE, JIS, ASTM, ISO,) or by customer specifications.                       

Assessment – evaluation process including a document review, an on-site audit and an analysis and report. Customers may also include a self-assessment, internal audit results and other materials in the assessment. 

Associate – Every SRK employee at every level of our company is considered an associate.

Audit – on-site verification activity based upon a sample used to determine the effective implementation of a supplier’s documented quality system.

Benchmarking – technique used to determine “best” practices for a particular process or product.

Calibration – set of operations which compare values from a piece of inspection, measuring and test equipment or a gage to a known standard under specified conditions.

CA-PDCA – A method of managing and problem solving that is fundamental to Company’s management culture and philosophy.

Capability – total range of inherent variations in a stable process. It is determined using data from control charts. The control charts shall indicate stability before capability calculations can be made. Histograms are to be used to examine the distribution pattern of individual values and verify a normal distribution. When analysis indicates a stable process and a normal distribution, the indices Cp and Cpk can be calculated. If analysis indicates a non-normal distribution, advanced statistical tools, such as PPM analysis, will be required to determine capability. If control charts show the process to be non-stable, the index Ppk can be calculated (see Statistical Process Control reference manual).

Capability Indices (Cp, Cpk) – see Statistical Process Control reference manual.

Certification Body/Registrar – for this document, a certification body/registrar is a qualified organization accredited by a national accreditation body to perform audits to the QS-9000
and to the register the audited facility for a given scope (e.g. commodity, process, etc.). Certification bodies/registrars shall meet the requirements of ISO/IEC Guide 62 and the IAF Guidance on the Application of ISO/EIC Guide 62, their national accreditation bodies, QS-9000, and the IASG Sanctioned QS-9000 Interpretations.

Claims – customer issues and/or returns which require formal responses within their corrective action documentation system. These issues typically requires completion of QPR, 5P, 8D and/or other designated format. 

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) – computer system capabilities that automate the creation and editing of geometry, dimensions and other drafting annotations which allow a user to define the shape and physical characteristics of an object.

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) – use of computers to aid in the engineering process. These aids can produce engineering analysis Math Data sometimes used for simulation and finite element analysis. 

Consulting – provision of training, documentation development, or assistance with implementation of quality systems to a specific customer. If these activities are open to the public, advertised, and not customer specific, they are considered training rather than consulting. Other products, processes or services may be directly or indirectly, provided they do not compromise confidentiality or the objectivity or impartiality of its certification process or decisions [refer to IAF Guidance on the Application if ISO/IEC Guide 62, Issue1, dated 2 June 1997 to ISO/IEC Guide 62:1996].

Control Charts (Variables, Attributes) – see Statistical Process Control reference manual.

Control Plans – written descriptions of the systems for controlling parts and processes.  They are written by suppliers to address the important characteristics and engineering requirements of the product. Each part shall have a Control Plan, but in many cases, “family” Control Plans can cover a number of parts produced using a common process. See Section II for customer-specific requirements (see Advanced Product Quality Planning and Control Plan reference manual and Production Part Approval Process manual).

Controlled Document – a document (e.g. policy manual, procedures, work instructions, records) that are defined within the document control system that is necessary to ensure quality as defined by Company procedures.

Corrective Action – action taken to eliminate the causes of an existing nonconformity or other undesirable situation in order to prevent recurrence. [modified from ISO 8402]

Corrective Action Plan – a plan for correcting the process or part quality issue.

Countermeasure Activity Sheet (CAS)  a format utilized to provide all associates with a systematic method for approaching problem investigations, investigation through 5-Why analysis. This approach provides a method for clear root cause analysis and countermeasure planning based upon sound problem solving methodologies.

Corrective Action Team (CAT) – a cross-functional term of associates working together to make improvements.

Cost of Poor Quality – costs associated with production of nonconforming material. Typically quality management breaks down these costs into two categories: internal failure and external failure. Typically, information available through normal business financial reporting should be sufficient to identify and manage the cost of poor quality. [Sometimes used interchangeably with Cost of Nonconformance (CONC).] See ISO 9004-1 for additional guidance.

Cross Charts – a visual control system for recording various performances (e.g. production, rejects, and downtime) that stays at the area of activity and is utilized for continuous improvement activities.

C-TPAT – a voluntary government-business initiative to build cooperative relationships that strengthen and improve overall international supply chain and U.S. border security.

Customer – depicts anyone who has purchased a product manufactured by SumiRiko Ohio, Inc., SumiRiko Tennessee, Inc., or S-Riko Automotive Hose de Chihuahua, S.A.P.I. de C.V.

Design for Manufacturing (DFM) / Design for Assembly (DFA) – simultaneous engineering process designed to optimize the relationship between design function, manufacturability, and ease of assembly.

Design of Experiments (DOE) – experimental technique used to manipulate process inputs in order to better understand their effects on process outputs. A designed experiment is a test or sequence of tests where potential influential process variables are systematically changed according to a prescribed design matrix. The response of interest is evaluated under the various conditions to: (1)identify the influential variables among the ones tested, (2)quantify the effects across the range represented by the levels of the variables, (3)gain a better understanding of the nature of the casual system at work in the process, and (4)compare the effects and interactions. Typical approaches to experimental design include “classical” and “Taguchi”.

Design Record – engineering requirements, typically contained in various formats (e.g. engineering drawings, math data, reference specifications).

Documentation – material (typically paper or electronic) defining the process to be followed (e.g. quality manual, operator instructions, graphics, pictorials).

Due Care – reasonable care taken by the supplier at the time the product was designed or manufactured, to design or manufacture a product that is reasonably safe for its intended and foreseeable uses by those who might use, might be expected to use, or might be endangered by the product.

Engineering Approved Product Authorization – written customer authorization required whenever a product or process varies from those currently customer approved.

Environment – all of the process conditions surrounding or affecting the manufacture and quality of a part or product. Environment will vary for each site, but generally includes: housekeeping, lighting, noise, HVAC, ESD controls, and safety hazards relating to housekeeping.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) – systematized group of activities intended to: 1) recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product/process and its effects, 2) identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring, and 3) document the process. See Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis reference manual.

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) – technique for modeling a complex structure. When the mathematical model is subjected to known loads, the displacement of the structure may be determined.

First Piece Inspection – comparing the first part made in a production run with a part from the next production run to verify that the quality level of the new parts is at least as acceptable as that of the previous run.

Functional Verification – testing to ensure the part conforms to all customer and SRK engineering performance and material requirements.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) – set of rules and standard symbols used to define part features and relationships on an engineering drawing. GD&T depicts the geometric relationship of part features (instead of the Cartesian relationship), allowing the maximum tolerance which permits full function of the product.

Initial Process Capability Study – short-term studies conducted to obtain early information on the performance of new or revised processes relative to internal or customer requirements. In many cases, initial process studies should be conducted at several points in the evolution of new processes (e.g. at the equipment or tolling subcontractor’s plant, after installation at the supplier’s plant).

Internal Requirements – work responsibilities that are a requirement to meet SumiRiko Ohio, Inc., SumiRiko Tennessee, Inc., or S-Riko Automotive Hose de Chihuahua, S.A.P.I. de C.V.. specifications for support and manufacturing departments.

Kaizen – Continuous Improvement.

Kanban – Pull system for production scheduling utilizing ordering cards.

Laboratory – test facility that may include chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical, reliability testing or test validation.

Laboratory Scope – quality record containing the following:

  • the specific tests, evaluations and calibrations a supplier laboratory has the ability and competency to perform.
  • a list of the equipment which it uses to perform the above
  • a list of the methods and standards to which it performs the above

Layout Inspection – complete measurement of all part dimensions shown on the design record. A layout inspection may be required by some customers for all products annually unless another frequency is established in a customer approved plan.

Last Off Part Comparison – comparing the last part made in a production run with a part from the next production run to verify that the quality level of the new parts is at least as acceptable as that of the previous run.

Match Check – design check and tryout of dimensionally correct parts from production tolling to ensure that they fit together and can be used to build assemblies and vehicles to design specification and intent.

Mistake Proofing (Poka-Yoke) – use of process or design features to prevent manufacture of nonconforming product.

MTC Chart – Mondai (Problem) Taisaku (Countermeasure) charts utilized for problem identification and countermeasures.

Muda – Waste

Multi-Disciplinary Approach – any activity where a group of individuals is consulted to complete a task or activity. A multi-disciplinary approach seeks to have all relevant knowledge and skills available to the decision making process. The term multi-disciplinary is synonymous with the term “cross-functional.” Certain activities may call for the convening of a meeting.

Nonconformance – product or material which does not conform to the customer requirements or specifications. 

Nonconformity – a process which does not conform to a quality system requirement.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness – the product of three measurements: Availability x Performance Efficiency x Yield; where Availability is the percentage of time the machinery is available, Performance Efficiency is how fast the machinery or equipment is running relative to its design cycle, and Yield is the percentage of the resulting product within quality specifications. [from Reliability and Maintainability Guideline for Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment].

Parts Per Million (PPM) – a way of stating the performance of a process in terms of actual nonconforming material. PPM data can be used to prioritize corrective actions. Definition of defective units varies with customer (e.g. all sorted, only those found to be wrong, all in box).

Performance Indices (Pp, Ppk) – see Statistical Process Control reference manual.

Poka-Yoke – Means to make something “mistake – proof”, these methods are applied to prevent abnormal conditions from occurring and/or being passed to the next operation.

Preventative Action – action taken to eliminate the causes of a potential nonconformity or other undesirable situation in order to prevent occurrence. [Modified from ISO 8402]

Problem Solving – a disciplined process to analyze problems to determine and eliminate root causes. Customer-specific requirements include Chrysler’s 7 Step Process, Ford’s 8-D, and General Motors’ PR&R (GP-5).

Procedure Manual – a documented manual (Level-2) which supports the Policy Manual with detailed description of operations for support and manufacturing departments.

Procedures – documented processes that are normally used when work affects more than one function or department of an organization. Procedures are considered to be level two (2) quality system documentation.

Process Flow Diagram – depiction of the flow of materials through the process, including any rework or repair operations. Also called a process flow chart.

Production Materials – materials which have been issued a production part number by the customer and are shipped directly to the customer.

Quality Assurance Structure Diagram – a document setting out the specific quality practices, resources and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product or contract. While control plans are quality plans, the Quality Assurance Structure Diagram is a broader concept. See ISO 9004-1, 5.3.3 for more information.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) – a structured method in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production.

Quality Planning – a structured process for defining the methods that will be used in the production of a specific product or family of products.

Quality Policy Manual – executive policy (Level-1) that defines the Company’s commitment to operating our corporation in accordance to QS-9000 / ISO-9000 requirements.

Quality Records – quality records are the documented evidence that the supplier’s processes were executed according to the quality system documentation (e.g. inspection and test results, internal audit results, calibration data) and records result.

Raw Data – test data that is gathered or taken by the technician/analyst at the time that the time the test is being run. It is generally not edited or manipulated in any fashion. It is often recorded in a notebook, etc. It is different from the results that are reported, in that the reported results usually involve editing, transformations, and/or other manipulations of the raw data for analysis and presentation.

Reaction Plan – action specified by a Control Plan, or other quality system documentation, to be initiated when nonconforming product or process instability is identified.

Registered Suppliers – are suppliers/subcontractors who have received third party registration/certification to a specific quality system standard for a specific scope.

Remote Location – a location at which production processes do not occur, e.g. which does not fit the definition given for Site, but which support such sites.

Rework – action taken on nonconforming product so that it will meet the specified requirements.

Service Parts – replacement parts manufactured to OEM specifications which are procured or released by OEM for service part applications.

Setup Verification – a recommended method is to produce enough product to constitute a subgroup of the size for SPC. The parts are measured, and the results are entered on the control chart. If these results fall within the central third of the control limit zone, the setup can be approved for production. If the results fall within the outer two thirds, a second subgroup should be manufactured, measured, and plotted. If this point falls in the same outer two thirds, the setup should be adjusted, and this sequence repeated. If the point falls in the central third, the setup can be approved for production.

Simulation Techniques – the practice of mimicking some or all of the behavior of one system with a different, dissimilar system. 

Site – a supplier or subcontractor location at which value-added production processes occur. “Site” also includes distributors of parts manufactured by other companies. External locations which only stage materials for onward shipment are exempted from QS-9000 registration (e.g. sequencers). The definition does not include suppliers of indirect materials or vehicle assembly plants. Providers of bulk or raw materials should contact the procuring division buyer to determine if their material is considered to be production material.

Solid Modeling – a geometric CAD technique which adds volumetric physical properties to a product design, which permits automated geometric and physical properties analysis.

Standardized Work – work done at the highest efficiency when all tasks are organized into a perfect sequence and where all waste can be minimized.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) – describes work conducted at a point of operation within the Company (e.g. setup, inspection, rework, and operator) and considered to be level three (3) quality system documentation.

Supplier Development – refers to all activities designed to improve the fundamental quality system performance of the subcontractor.

Suppliers – defined as providers of: a) production materials, b) production or service parts, or c) heat treating, plating, painting or other finishing services, directly to automobile manufacturers or other customers subscribing to this document. See Site.

Suspect Material or Product – any material or product where the inspection and test status is uncertain.

Theory of Constraints – a manufacturing philosophy intended to help organizations increase the positive impact of “change efforts” focused on continuous improvement by identifying and addressing anything (frequently policy roadblocks or “old ways”, not machines or physical barriers) that limits performance (i.e., constraints) related to a stated goal or objective. 

Tool – the portion of process machinery which is specified to a component or sub-assembly. A tool (or tooling) is used in process machinery to transform raw material into a finished part or assembly.

Validation – confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled.

Value Added Production Process – activities or operations for which a customer would be willing to pay, if given the option.

Value Analysis (VA) – method for analyzing a product or process in order to reduce costs. The method uses a systematic format for eliminating nonessential functions (those not adding value) thus reducing overall cost. When this method is used during the early design and development phases it is generally referred to as value engineering.

Value Engineering (VE) – a planned, clean sheet approach to problem solving, focusing on specific product design and process characteristics. Where value analysis is employed to improve value after production has begun, value engineering is employed to maximize value prior to expenditures of facilities and tooling money.

Verification – confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled.

3I-3AImmediately go to the Actual process, Immediately check the Actual defects, Immediately take Action against the problem.